"The first is that the toes are divided, although they retain their origin in the iron feet. Just as in the human body the toes separate while projecting from yet belonging to the foot — so also was the Roman Empire split as Spain, France…and other parts [after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D.]…. Nevertheless, it has continued to grow…. Yet this has occurred in such a way that its nature as iron was retained. For the Empire still has its estates, offices, laws, and statutes — as of old….
"The second thing [Daniel here points out, is] that these divided toes are dissimilar — partly iron and partly clay…. Now it is mighty; now weak. This too has come to pass. Often there have been numerous brave emperors like Charlemagne [768-814 A.D.], the three Ottos [936-1002 A.D.], and others — who were unconquerable…. This is said, however, in order that we might know that the Roman Empire is to be the last, and that no one will be able to destroy it save Christ alone and His Kingdom. Therefore, even though many monarchs may have risen…and the Turks may rage…and even though all such enemies may perhaps win an occasional battle – they are still unable to conquer… Up until now, experience — with respect to both the Popes themselves and the kings — has borne this out.
"The mountain from which the stone is cut without human hands [2:45]…, signifies the whole Jewish people from whom Christ sprang. He is their flesh and blood, but has been torn from them and has come among the Gentiles. Among the Gentiles, He has become a Lord in all the World — in all four of these kingdoms [to which Daniel refers] — and will so remain!"
Luther on Islam and the Papacy as the two legs of the image in Daniel chapter two
Christ, the Stone in Daniel chapter two, at His Resurrection shattered the Pagan Roman Empire — in principle. Ephesians 1:20f & 4:8-10, and Colossians 2:12-15. Then, from A.D. 600 onward, that shattered Roman Empire divided into two legs — as predicted in Daniel’s explanation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar. The left leg became the Western Roman Empire, under the Papacy in Rome. The right leg, the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital Constantinople, later succumbed to Islam — under the Turk Mohammed II.and his awesome armies in 1453.
“The Turk and the Pope,” explained Luther, “do not differ at all in the form of religion; they vary only in words and ceremonies. For the Turk observes his and Moses’ ceremonies; yet the Pope, partly Christian ceremonies and partly such as were born of his own brain….
“Just as the Turk violates the washings of Moses, so the Pope [too] does violence to Baptism and the Sacrament [of the Eucharist]. And just as the former does not stay with Moses, so the latter does not stay purely with Christ.”3
Rev. Dr. Martin Luther continues: “The Pope, with his followers, commits a greater sin than the Turk and all the Heathen…. The Turk.forces no one to deny Christ and to adhere to his [own Islamic] faith…. Though he rages most intensely by murdering Christians in the body — he, after all, does nothing by this but fill heaven with saints….
“The Pope does not want to be either enemy or Turk… He [the Pope] fills hell with nothing but ‘Christians’…. This is committing real spiritual murder, and is every bit as bad as the teaching and blasphemy of Mohammed and the Turks. But whenever men do not allow him [the Pope] to practice this infernal diabolical seduction — he adopts the way of the Turk, and commits bodily murder too….