of Rome the Babylon of the Apocalypse?, Rivington, London, 1856, p. 36 n. 7) & Hengstenberg's op. cit. III:77. Cf. too esp. nn. 708 & 729. It is true that Preterists have sought to identify the Sea-Beast of Rev. 13:1f not with Rome but rather with the Judaistic State in Judea right before A.D. 70 (cf. n. 408). However, Rev. 13:1-7's Sea-Beast is obviously a projection of the Fourth Beast of Dan. 2:34-43 & 7:19-25. And that Fourth Empire was clearly identified as Rome by the Ancient Hebrews (Daniel, Jaddua, the Talmud, the Targums, and Josephus); by subsequent Judaists (Johanan ben Zakkai, Akiba ben Joseph, Pirke Eliezer, Saadia ben Joseph, Sahl ben Mazliah, Jephet ben Halevi, Rashi Solomon ben Isaac, Abraham ben Ezra, Moses Maimonides, David Kimchi ben Joseph, Levi Gersonides, Isaac Abranavel, Mordecai ben Judah, and Manasseh ben Israel). Rev. 13:1-10's Sea-Beast was also equated with Rome by the Early Church Fathers. Thus Jesus Christ (Mt. 24:1-3,15,28 cf. Dan. 9:27 & 12:11), John the Apostle (Rev. 13:1 cf. Dan. 7:17f), Irenaeus (Against Heresies V:25:1-3 & 26:1 & 28:1 & 30:3), Tertullian (On the Resurrection of the Flesh chs. 24-25 cf. nn. 6934f), Hippolytus (Treat. on Christ and Antichrist ch. 50), Victorinus (Commentary on Revelation), Lactantius (The Divine Institutes VII:15-17), Tichonius, Ambrose, Augustine (various writings), Orosius (VI:1:i-iii & VII:2), Jerome (Epistle to Marcella and Commentary on Isaiah ch. 24), Andreas of Caesarea (Commentary on Revelation), Oecumenius, the Venerable Bede, Walafrid Strabo, Aretus, and also many others. Rev. 13:1-10's Sea-Beast was identified with Post-Constantinian degenerate Imperial Rome by Mid- and LateMediaeval Theologians. Thus Berengaud, Waldo, Joachim of Floris, Eberhard of Salzburg, Pierre d'Olivi, Ubertino of Casale, Dante, Michael Rupercissa, Petrarch, John Milicx, Wycliffe, Matthias of Janow, Purvey, Walter Brute, Huss, and Savanorola. That same identification was made by the Early Reformers Luther, Oecolampadius, Melanchthon, Tyndale, Joye, Osiander, Knox, the Calvinistic Geneva Bible, Hooper, Bale, Latimer, Ridley, Von Amsdorff, Flaccius Illyricus, Bullinger, Funck, and Virgil Solis and also by nearly all of the later Classic Lutherans and Classic Calvinists and Classic Episcopalian Anglicans and other Protestants such as Jewel, Nigrinus, Cranmer, Chytraeus, Foxe, Napier, James the First, Brightman, Downham, Pacard, Broughton, Helwig, Pareus, Hoe, Cramer, the Dordt Dutch Bible, Gerhard, Alsted, Mede, Durham, Sherwin, Cocceius, John Cotton, Parker, Holyoke, Phillipot, Increase Mather, Cappel, Spener, Cressener, Jurieu, Matthew Henry, Fleming, Daubuz, Burnet, Jonathan Edwards, Langdon, De Bionens, Pyle, Bishop Thomas Newton, Bengel, Petri, Wood, Gale, Osgood, Winthrop, Linn, Dudley, John Brown of Haddington, Farnham, Priestley, Romeyne, Thomas Scott, Adam Clarke, Hinton, Junkin, Lacunza, Faber, Fuller, Cunninghame, the Cottage Bible, Keith, Cox, Bishop Elliott, David Brown, Patrick Fairbairn, William Symington, Albert Barnes, J.P. Lange, Apostolos Makrakis, J. Marcellus Kik, and many others. Cf. too n. 494 for the further development of this Roman Political Beast. Even many Preterists who apply Rev. chs. 4 to 11 against Ancient Jerusalem still apply Rev. chs. 12 to 18 against Rome. Thus Alcasar, Grotius, Hammond, Lightfoot, Bossuet, Wetstein, Herrenschneider, Eichorn, Ewald, Scholten, Luecke, Duesterdieck, and Vanderwaal (cf. the latter's The Revelation of Jesus Christ, De Vuurbaak, Groningen, 1971, p. 272). Incidentally, the Arminian Grotius was the very first 'Protestant' to adopt Romish Preterism pioneered by the Romanistic Jesuit Alcasar. He was later followed by other Preterists, such as the Rationalists Eichhorn, Ewald, Luecke, De Wette and Wellhausen.
Revelation 13 December 20
So this first Roman monster alias the Sea-Beast is immediately followed and kept 'alive' by the second (or 'lamb-like) Beast' mentioned in the latter half of Revelation thirteen. This second Beast, the Papacy which looks like a two-horned lamb but speaks like a dragon revives and perpetuates the commemoration of the first Roman monster alias the SeaBeast.581