Table of contents
1. The Pre-Mosaic weekly sabbath. 2. The Mosaic Old Testament sweeps through to the New Testament finale. 3. The New Testament life of Christ the Second Adam and Lord of the Sabbath. 4. Christ’s resurrection as the hinge of history. 5. The sabbath on Christ’s Sunday resurrection. 6. The sabbath from Christ’s resurrection till Pentecost Sunday. 7. From Pentecost Sunday till the endless Day of the Lord. Endnotes.
EVERLASTING REST: SABBATHS OLD AND NEW
After God Triune created the Universe out of nothing, He formed our Earth in six days. Then He rested on His Seventh Day throughout world history, until the advent of Sunday the Lord’s Day on God’s Eighth Day — announcing the Day of Judgment or the Day of the Lord.
1. The Pre-Mosaic weekly sabbath
Just before God started resting on His Seventh Day, He created man at the end of His Sixth. Thus also godly man as the image of God, on the first complete day of the weeks of his life, kept the sabbath and all the rest of the Ten Commandments written in his heart.
This continued, even after the fall. In process of time or "at the end of days" alias on the weekly sabbath, also Abel brought the firstlings of his flock and of their fat to the Lord.1
A thousand years later, toward the time of the Flood, Lamech the Sethite called his son ‘Noah’ (or ‘Comfort’ alias ‘Rest’) — because Noah would give man rest. Centuries later, God covenanted with Noah and his family to enter into the ark.
"For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the Earth…. And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the Earth." Later, on the sabbath-day, the "the ark rested on the seventeenth day of the seventh month upon the mountains of Ararat."
On the eleventh day of the eleventh month, a weekly sabbath-day, Noah sent forth a raven from the ark. One week later, he sent forth a dove, to see if the waters had come to rest. Then Noah "stayed yet another seven days" and sent forth the dove which returned with an olive-leaf in her mouth so that Noah knew the waters had come to rest. "Then Noah stayed yet another seven days, and sent forth the dove again."
On another sabbath, the first day of the first month of Noah’s 601st year, he removed the covering of the resting ark. Genesis 8:13. And on yet another sabbath, the twenty-seventh day of the second month, Noah left the ark and restfully "offered burnt offerings" to God.2
God again renewed His covenant and His Commandments with Abraham and family. This was given also to Isaac, and to Jacob who was mourned by his son Joseph for seven days.3 That would last right down till the time of the New Testament, and indeed also till the time of the New Earth.4
Also the patriarch Job knew of the seven-day week. As too did Moses – long before he proclaimed the sabbath in the Ten Commandments!5
2. The Mosaic Old Testament sweeps through to the New Testament finale
Now Moses’s covenantal exodus from Egypt on the (7 x 2 + 1 =) fifteenth Nisan6 and the entry into Canaan, foreshadowed the Lord’s day as clearly taught also in the New Testament.7 So too did the Psalms,8 and especially the later Prophets.9
Also the annual sabbatical feasts of Leviticus 23 and the sabbath year and jubilee of Leviticus 25, constantly pointed man upward and onward. As too, after six thousand years of history from Adam till today, does the millennium in Revelation 20.