Communist Eschatology: A Christian Philosophical Analysis of the Post-Capitalistic Views of Marx, Engels and Lenin – Part 2

will become a pleasure instead of a burden"128 and result in "on the one hand direct social appropriation as a means to the

maintenance and extension of production, and on the other hand direct individual appropriation as a means to life and

pleasure."198 Creative labor, wrote Engels,227 is "the highest enjoyment known to us."

But preeminently, communist work is also beautiful-it exhibits a deeply aesthetic quality. This has almost been suggested

in other Marxian quotations already cited above,199 and Marx elsewhere pointed out that "an animal’s product belongs

immediately to its physical body, whilst man freely confronts his product. An animal forms things in accordance with the

standard and the need of the species to which it belongs, whilst man knows how to produce in accordance with the standard

of every species, and knows how to apply everywhere the inherent standard to the object. Man therefore also forms things in

accordance with the laws of beauty."200

Under advanced technology, Marx wrote in his Capital, machine-operators become very versatile and freely productive

on account of the "almost artistic nature of their occupation,"201 and co-operative labor in factories, for example, "necessarily

requires for the inter-connection and unity of the process one mandatory will which fulfils a function which has nothing to do

with fragmentary acts, but only with the combined labor of the place of work, in the same manner as the will of the conductor

of an orchestra";202 and "free labor, for example the labor of the composer, is at the same time a devilishly serious matter, a

most intensive strain"-a viewpoint re-emphasized with great approval in 1963 by modern communist philosophers.203

Communist labor, then, is not only voluntary and enjoyable. It is also a fine art.204

Finally, communist labor is also characterized by the creation of an ever-increasing abundance. The communist worker,

held Marx, will be "the rich man richly endowed with all feelings" and "the rich human being… who needs a totality of human

life activities."205 The united labor of communism, wrote Marx (and Engels) in the Manifesto of the Communist Party, will

become "merely a means to enlarge the existence and to enrich and to improve the existence of the worker."206 And in his

1875 Critique of the Gotha Program, Marx prophesied (and Lenin in his 1917 State and Revolution reiterated) that "in a

higher phase of communist society, … all the springs of co-operative wealth flow more abundantly."207

No different was the view of the mature Engels. In an 1878 essay on Marx, Engels wrote that the productive powers

developed under capitalism "are only waiting for the associated proletariat to take possession of them in order to bring about

a state of things in which every member of society will be enabled to participate not only in production but also in the

distribution and administration of social wealth, and which so increases the social productive forces and their yield by planned

operation of the whole of production, that the satisfaction of all reasonable needs will be assured to everyone in an everincreasing

measure."208 In his Anti-Dühring of the same year, he maintained that communism would produce "an

uninterrupted, ever-quickening development of the productive powers, and through a particularly unlimited increase in

production itself."209 And in his 1880 Socialism-Utopian and Scientific, he maintained that communist labor would be

characterized by the "securing for every member of society, by means of socialized production, an existence … fully sufficient

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