Communist Eschatology: A Christian Philosophical Analysis of the Post-Capitalistic Views of Marx, Engels and Lenin – Part 2

day life of the masses, the rule: ’All for one and one for all,’ the rule: ’From each according to his ability, to each according

to his needs’; we shall work for the gradual but steady introduction of communist discipline and communist labor … We shall

work for years and decades, practicing subbotniks, developing them, spreading them, improving them and converting them

into a habit. We shall achieve the victory of communist labor."107

How, then, is the transition from socialist labor to communist labor to be achieved?

Firstly, by massive expansion of production. As Engels stated in his 1878 Anti-Dühring, "the capitalist mode of

appropriation, in which the product enslaves first the producer, and then also the appropriator, will thereby be replaced by the

mode of appropriation of the products based on the nature of the modern means of production themselves,"108 and "the old

mode of production must therefore be revolutionized from top to bottom" so that "productive labor, instead of being a means

to the subjection of men will become a means to their emancipation."109

As Engels stated in his 1891 Introduction to Marx’s Wage, Labor and Capital: "A new social order is possible … through

the systematic use and further development of the enormous productive powers of society, which exist with us even now."110

And as Marx himself stated in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program: "In the higher phase of communist society … the

productive forces will have increased."111

Secondly, communist labor is to be attained by large-scale technical development in general and by electrification in

particular. As Lenin remarked in his 1920 The Tasks of the Youth Leagues: "Communist society, as we know, cannot be built

unless we restore industry and agriculture, and that not in the old way. They must be re-established on a modern basis, in

accordance with the last word in science. You know that electricity is that basis, and that only after electrification of the entire

country, of all branches of industry and agriculture, only when you have achieved that aim, will you be able to build for

yourselves the communist society which the older generation will not be able to build."112

Thirdly, communist labor will be attained by universal employment. All will be obliged to work; and all will so desire. As

Engels wrote approvingly of the utopian communist John Owen in his own Anti-Dühring: "Had Herr Dühring even fingered

Owen's Book of the New Moral World, he would most assuredly have found clearly expressed in it not only the most clear-cut

communism possible, with equal obligation to labor and equal rights in the product … but also the most comprehensive

project of the future community."113 And as he later declared in 1891: "A new social order is possible … with equal obligation

upon all to work."114

Fourthly, universal employment will in itself lead to the further shortening of the working day. This makes "it possible to

distribute labor among all members of society without exception, and thereby to limit the labor-time of each individual member

to such an extent that all have enough free time left to take part in the general-both theoretical and practical-affairs of

society," held Engels.115 And the utopian communists Fourier and Owen both considered "that labor should recover the

attractiveness of which the division of labor had deprived it, in the first place through this variation of occupations, and

through the correspondingly short duration of the 'session'-to use Fourier's expression-devoted to each separate type of

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