Communist Eschatology: A Christian Philosophical Analysis of the Post-Capitalistic Views of Marx, Engels and Lenin – Part 2

concerned under post-socialistic future communism-again according to the classical communist view. Sixthly, this will be

followed by a short account of the attitude of post-Leninislic communists (such as Stalin, Khrushchev and Mao Tse-tung)

towards the eschatological development of the topic concerned, merely in order to see how theoretical Marxism-Leninism has

been or can be applied in practice. And seventhly, a summary is given of the entire Marxist-Leninist doctrine of the

eschatological development of the topic concerned.

Chapter VII


"But life involves before everything else eating and drinking, an habitation, clothing and many other things. The first

historical act is thus the production of the means to satisfy these needs, the production of material life itself. And indeed this

is an historical act, a fundamental condition of all history, which today, as thousands of years ago, must daily and hourly be

fulfilled merely in order to sustain human life."

-Marx and Engels: The German Ideology (1846)

By work, man becomes himself. Work is the "becoming of self."

-Karl Marx’

Whereas in the last few chapters we have been dealing with the history of communist eschatology, it is appropriate that

this, the next chapter, should deal with the communist doctrine of labor. For the communist, the nexus between history and

labor is very close. As Marx remarked: "For socialist man, the whole social history of the world is nothing other than the

production of man by human labor."2

In this chapter, we shall deal with: first, the communist doctrine of the nature of labor, second, the communist doctrine of

labor under "primitive communism"; third, the communist doctrine of the alienation of labor; fourth, the communist doctrine of

labor under socialism; fifth, the communist belief regarding labor under future communism; sixth, the post-Leninistic

communistic statements on the future of labor. And seventh, we shall give a summary of the development and future destiny

of the communist doctrine of labor.

1. The Nature of Labor

The doctrine of labor is absolutely basic to an understanding of communist thought in general and communist

eschatology in particular. On the fundamental doctrine of labor rest the closely related communist doctrines of value, class,

and property (which form the subjects of the following chapters), and, indeed, labor is also ultimately determinative of the

communist doctrine of the various societal structures to be dealt with later, such as the family, the nation, the state, etc.

Consequently, it will be necessary in this chapter to lay a rather solid foundation on which the subsequent chapters may be

erected hereafter.

The above considerations practically lead us straight into the necessity of attempting a definition of labor.

The best communist definition of labor is perhaps Marx’s statement in his Capital I that "labor is a process going on

between man and nature, a process in which man, through his own activity, initiates, regulates, and controls the material

reactions between himself and nature. He confronts nature as one of her own forces, setting in motion arms and legs, head

and hands, in order to appropriate nature’s products in a form suitable to his own wants. By thus acting on the external world

and changing it, he at the same time changes his own nature. He develops the potentialities that slumber within him, and

subjects these inner forces to his own control … What from the very first distinguishes the most incompetent architect from

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