concerned under post-socialistic future communism-again according to the classical communist view. Sixthly, this will be
followed by a short account of the attitude of post-Leninislic communists (such as Stalin, Khrushchev and Mao Tse-tung)
towards the eschatological development of the topic concerned, merely in order to see how theoretical Marxism-Leninism has
been or can be applied in practice. And seventhly, a summary is given of the entire Marxist-Leninist doctrine of the
eschatological development of the topic concerned.
LABOR IN COMMUNIST ESCHATOLOGY
"But life involves before everything else eating and drinking, an habitation, clothing and many other things. The first
historical act is thus the production of the means to satisfy these needs, the production of material life itself. And indeed this
is an historical act, a fundamental condition of all history, which today, as thousands of years ago, must daily and hourly be
fulfilled merely in order to sustain human life."
-Marx and Engels: The German Ideology (1846)
By work, man becomes himself. Work is the "becoming of self."
Whereas in the last few chapters we have been dealing with the history of communist eschatology, it is appropriate that
this, the next chapter, should deal with the communist doctrine of labor. For the communist, the nexus between history and
labor is very close. As Marx remarked: "For socialist man, the whole social history of the world is nothing other than the
production of man by human labor."2
In this chapter, we shall deal with: first, the communist doctrine of the nature of labor, second, the communist doctrine of
labor under "primitive communism"; third, the communist doctrine of the alienation of labor; fourth, the communist doctrine of
labor under socialism; fifth, the communist belief regarding labor under future communism; sixth, the post-Leninistic
communistic statements on the future of labor. And seventh, we shall give a summary of the development and future destiny
of the communist doctrine of labor.
1. The Nature of Labor
The doctrine of labor is absolutely basic to an understanding of communist thought in general and communist
eschatology in particular. On the fundamental doctrine of labor rest the closely related communist doctrines of value, class,
and property (which form the subjects of the following chapters), and, indeed, labor is also ultimately determinative of the
communist doctrine of the various societal structures to be dealt with later, such as the family, the nation, the state, etc.
Consequently, it will be necessary in this chapter to lay a rather solid foundation on which the subsequent chapters may be
The above considerations practically lead us straight into the necessity of attempting a definition of labor.
The best communist definition of labor is perhaps Marx’s statement in his Capital I that "labor is a process going on
between man and nature, a process in which man, through his own activity, initiates, regulates, and controls the material
reactions between himself and nature. He confronts nature as one of her own forces, setting in motion arms and legs, head
and hands, in order to appropriate nature’s products in a form suitable to his own wants. By thus acting on the external world
and changing it, he at the same time changes his own nature. He develops the potentialities that slumber within him, and
subjects these inner forces to his own control … What from the very first distinguishes the most incompetent architect from